Domes

– Al-Aqsa Mosque includes 15 beautiful domes that give it special splendor. They are distributed around the mosque. Most of them were built during the Umayyad and Ayyubids eras.
– Each dome has a different shape and style of construction. – Some of the domes are: AlSilsila Dome, Dome of the Rock, Al-Mi’raj Dome, and others.

  • Pick a point from the map
  • Dome of Yusuf Agha

    Landmark Location:
    On the western side of Al-Aqsa Mosque, across the Islamic Museum (Moroccans Mosque).

    Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
    West of the Dome of the Rock.

    Landmark History:
     1902 AH - 1681 AD
    .

    Reason of the name:
     Named after its builder the Ottoman governor Yusuf.

    Builder Name:
     The Ottoman governor Yusuf.

    Details of the shape:
    -A semi-open square building, hence its southern side is closed with a mihrab.
    -Jerusalem’s governor, Yusuf Agha, had it built during the reign of the Ottoman Sultan Mohammed IV, as shown in the two inscriptions on its exterior.

    An Overview of the Dome:
    It was named after the Ottoman governor, Yusuf. It is on the western side of Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock, across the Islamic Museum (Moroccans Mosque). Jerusalem’s governor, Yusuf Agha, had it built in 1681 AD/ 1902 AH.

  • Dome of the Cradle of Jesus (Mahd Issa)

    Landmark Location:
    Located at the middle of a staircase located in the south-east corner of the Marwani chapel leading to the roof of the chapel.

    Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock: Southeast the dome. 

    Landmark History:
     It was renovated in the Ottoman era, in 1315/1898 AD.

    Reason of the name:
    To commemorate the birth of Prophet Jesus, peace be upon him.

    Builder Name:
     Some say it was built during the Ottoman era; others say it was the the Umayyad era and others say it was built during the Fatimid period.

    Details of the shape:
    -It’s a small dome carried by four columns, bellow it a stone basin called the “cradle of Jesus”. It was probably there in the Abbasid or the Fatimid eras, in front of it is a stone niche. It is said that Jesus Christ the son of Mary, peace and blessings of Allah be upon them, slept in this place when he was a young child, and this is something unproven until now and not believed by the Christians, as they did not give the place any attention before the Islamic conquest.
    -Memorial building inside Al-Aqsa Mosque.
    -Researchers confirm that the mihrab or the cradle of Jesus is originally the compartment of the Khalifah, and is a room of a large house fortified with walls of elements of the mosque near the mihrab.
    -The Fatimid’s made this mihrab and this cabin for worship, and they called it the mosque of the cradle of Jesus.
    -It was built mostly in the Fatimid period, to commemorate the birth of the Prophet Jesus Peace, the oldest mention of the site returns to the traveler Nasir Khusraw in (413 AH / 1047 AD).
    -It’s a rectangular room, 7.4 m × 4.4 m, below the level of the mosque in about 6 meters. Can be descended to by a staircase, and entered through a small gate above the surface of the Marwani chapel. The entrance was the only one for the Marwani chapel before its restoration and the opening of additional gates.
    -Inside the room is a ground niche, 1.6 × 1 m, called the cradle of Issa, above the mihrab there is an ornate dome and three niches in Al_Qibli area Ayyubid, Mamluk and Ottoman eras.

    An Overview of the Landmark:
    It was built to commemorate the birth of Prophet Jesus; peace be upon him. It’s located at the middle of a staircase, in the southeastern corner of Al-Marwani Prayer Hall leading to its roof. It’s southeast the Dome of the Rock. Some say it was built during the Ottoman era; others say it was in the Umayyad era, and others say it was built during the Fatimid period. It was renovated in the Ottoman era, in 1315/1898 AD.

    It’s a small dome carried on four pillars. Below it is a stone basin called Mahd Issa. It was probably there in the Abbasid or the Fatimid eras, in front of it is a stone niche. It is said that Jesus Christ the son of Mary, peace and blessings of Allah be upon them, slept in this place when he was a young child, and this is something unproven until now and not believed by the Christians, as they did not give the place any attention before the Islamic conquest.

    It’s a memorial building inside Al-Aqsa Mosque. Researchers confirm that the mihrab or Mahd Issa is originally the compartment of the Caliph, and is a room of a large house fortified with walls of elements of the mosque near the mihrab. The Fatimid’s made this mihrab and this cabin for worship, and they called it Mahd Issa mosque. It was built mostly in the Fatimid period, to commemorate the birth of the Prophet Jesus. The oldest mentioning of the site was for the traveler Nasir Khusraw, in (413 AH / 1047 AD).

    It’s a rectangular room, 7.4 m × 4.4 m, below the level of the mosque in about 6 meters. Can be descended to by a staircase, and entered through a small gate above the surface of the Marwani chapel. The entrance was the only one for the Marwani chapel before its restoration and the opening of additional gates. Inside the room is a ground niche, 1.6 × 1 m, called the cradle of Issa, above the mihrab there is an ornate dome and three niches in the tribal area Ayyubid, Mamluk and Ottoman eras.

  • Dome of Suleiman

    Landmark Location:
    Located north of the mosque, near the door of the prophets Sharaf.

    Landmark History:
    Built in Umayyad era - Date of renovation: 600 AH - 1203 AD.

    Reason of the name:
    Named after Suleiman bin Abdul Malik.

    Builder Name:
     It built in the Umayyad era and rebuilt in the Ayyubids period.

    Details of the shape
    -Building an octagon and a dome is above, mounted on twenty-four marble columns, with a chapel in south, and have an opened door in northern facade.
    -It is believed that its octagonal building was built to maintain a clear and visible part of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
    -It is believed that its construction and its present form were made in the Ayyubids period, especially as it corresponds to Meiraj dome that built by Ayyubids and restored in the Ottoman period.
    -The dome was used for worship, meditation and solitude, then became a place for keeping papers and records for the Sharia Court and the blessed Al-Aqsa Mosque, then repaired through a ministry Awqaf and used the headquarters of the Department of preachers, now, the building needs Restoration.

    An Overview of the Landmark:
    It is north of the mosque, near Sharaf Al-Anbiya’a Gate. It was built in the Umayyad era, and then rebuilt in the Ayyubid era, in 1203 (600 A.H.).
    It’s an octagon building with a dome above it. It’s mounted on twenty-four marble columns, with a chapel in south, and have an opened door in northern facade.  it is believed that its octagonal building was built to maintain a clear and visible part of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. It is believed that its construction and its present form were made in the Ayyubids period, especially as it corresponds to Mi’raj Dome that built by Ayyubids and restored in the Ottoman period.

    The dome was used for worshipping, meditation, and solitude. Then, it became a place for keeping papers and records for the Sharia Court and the blessed Al-Aqsa Mosque, then repaired through a ministry Awqaf and used the headquarters of the Department of preachers, now, the building needs restoration. Some scholars say that it dates back to the time of Prophet Suleiman. They called this name after the prophets who prayed behind Prophet Mohammed, and because of the existence of Moses and Suleiman domes.

    There is a great resemblance between Suleiman and Al-Mi’raj domes. They both are octagonal and have arches that were turned into windows.

  • The Dome of the Lovers of the Prophet (Iwan Sultan Mahmoud)

    Landmark Location:
    Located inside Al-Aqsa Mosque on the north side, to the southeast of King Faisal door (Al-Atem door).

    Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
    North of the Dome of the Rock.

    Landmark History:
    The establishment dates back to the reign of the Ottoman Sultan Mahmoud II, in 1233 AH / 1817 AD.

    Reason of the name:
    -Named the Dome of the Lovers of the Prophet because there are some Sufi sheikhs used to meet underneath it, to discussion of matters of religion.
    -Named the Dome of Sultan Mahmoud Iwan because it was built during the reign of the second Ottoman Sultan Mahmoud.

    Builder Name:
    In the Ottoman era under the reign of Sultan Mahmoud II.

    Details of the shape:
    -A square building with a length of 7 meters, based on four corner pillars topped by four pointed blocks which are topped by a shallow dome, the building was with open sides with a beautiful hollow stone niche seem that added in a later period in the center of the south side, climbing to the bowl of the dome through three Stairs from both sides west and east, its floor is paved with stone, and on its edge from the north side
    Two columns seem to be placed afterwards as a barrier.
    -The traveler Nasir Khusraw mentioned, in his visit to al-Aqsa, that there has been a dome named the dome of Jacob at the site of the dome itself, and he mentioned a group of Sufis living near the door of the mosque. In the Mamluk era, the Dodari School was established at Bab Sharaf al-Anbiya. It was a dwelling place for Sufis, where some Sufi sheikhs used to meet and discuss matters of religion underneath the Dome, back in the past and nowadays.

  • Qubbat AlSelselah (The Dome of the Chain)

    Landmark Location:
    In the middle of Al-Aqsa Mosque.

    Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
     East of the Dome, three meters from the eastern door.

    Reason of the name:
    Named after an iron chain dangled in the middle. -The Muslims considered it as the place where prophet Dawood (David), peace be upon him, sat for the judiciary and called it a David Court.

    Builder Name:
    Al Khalifa Abdul Malik bin Marwan.

    Details of the shape:
    -It is a small building, with a beautiful shape and topping, and with open walls.
    -The dome has two circles:
    The first: the external, consists of eleven columns.
    The second: the interior, carries the dome and consists of six columns.
    -It contains a mihrab on the southern side and is one of the most famous domes of Al-Aqsa Mosque.
    -One of the characteristics of the dome is that you can see all the columns.

    In the Umayyad period:
    -It was a place for science and scientists, for teaching and listening. It was an office for the Khalifah Suleiman bin Abdul Malik; where he sat to look in the people’s affairs.
    -It was exposed to too many natural disasters and political changes
    that have changed its original form.

    In the Abbasid period:
    -It decorated with mosaics, have a marble columns with lead plates.

    In the Fatimid period:
    -The dome was affected by earthquakes and natural disasters, so it was rebuilt, and a beautiful was mihrab set up on it.
    -During the Crusader occupation of Jerusalem:
    -The dome was turned into a church and was called St James church, and many changes made for it.

    In the Ayyubids period:
    -The dome was rebuilt after the liberation of Al-Aqsa Mosque from the Crusaders, and the mihrab that was fortified with two columns was also rebuilt.

    In the Mamluk era:
    -The dome was renovated during the time of Sultan al-Zaher Baybars.
    -In the Ottoman era:
    -The dome was restored to its original shape with 17 columns as it is today. The Ayyubid’s inscription was replaced with a new one, after covering it with Qishani Turkish tiles.

    The modern era:
    -The dome was restored and the floor tiles were changed in 1390 AH /1970 AD and between 1430 AH /2009 until 1434 H / 2013.
    -Historians disagreed on why the dome was built:Some say it was a prototype that was depended on to build the Dome of the Rock. Others say it’s a center point of Al-Aqsa Mosque. Some considered it a memorial for prophet David’s court. Others thought it was a treasury, or an office for engineers. In a nut shell, no one could identify and be certain of the exact cause.

    An Overview of the Landmark:
    It was named after an iron chain dangled in the middle. Muslims considered it as the place where prophet Dawood (David), peace be upon him, sat for the judiciary and called it a David Court. It’s located in the middle of Al-Aqsa Mosque, east of the Dome, three meters from the eastern door. It was built by Al Khalifah Abdul Malik bin Marwan. 
    It is a small building, with a beautiful shape and topping, and with open walls. The dome has two circles. the first is the external, and consists of eleven columns. The second is the interior. It crries the dome and consists of six columns. It contains a mihrab on the southern side and is one of the most famous domes of Al-Aqsa Mosque. One of the characteristics of the dome is that you can see all the columns.

    In the Umayyad period:
    It was a place for science and scientists, for teaching and listening. It was an office for the Khalifah Suleiman bin Abdul Malik; where he sat to look in the people’s affairs. It was exposed to too many natural disasters and political changes that have changed its original form.

    In the Abbasid period:
    It was decorated with mosaics, and has marble columns with lead plates.

    In the Fatimid period:
    The dome was affected by earthquakes and natural disasters, so it was rebuilt, and a beautiful mihrab was set up on it.

    During the Crusader occupation of Jerusalem:
    The dome was turned into a church and was called St James church, and many changes made for it.

    In the Ayyubids period:
    The dome was rebuilt after the liberation of Al-Aqsa Mosque from the Crusaders, and the mihrab that was fortified with two columns was also rebuilt. 

    In the Mamluk era:
    The dome was renovated during the time of Sultan al-Zaher Baybars.

    In the Ottoman era:
    The dome was restored to its original shape with 17 columns as it is today. The Ayyubid’s inscription was replaced with a new one, after covering it with Qishani Turkish tiles.

    The modern era:
    The dome was restored and the floor tiles were changed in 1390 AH / 1970 AD and between 1430 AH /2009 until 1434 H / 2013.
    Historians disagreed on why the dome was built. Some say it was a prototype that was depended on to build the Dome of the Rock. Others say it’s a center point of Al-Aqsa Mosque. Some considered it a memorial for prophet David’s court. Others thought it was a treasury, or an office for engineers. In a nut shell, no one could identify and be certain of the exact cause.

     

  • The Balance Dome (Burhan Al-Din Tribune)

    Landmark Location:
     Located south of the Dome bowel of the Rock, adjacent to the southern Barage.

    Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
    Southern Dome of the Rock.

    Landmark History:
    Built by Burhanuddin Place of a wooden platform put by Salah al-Din, year (790 Hijri-1388 AD).

    Reason of the name:
    Its name “ The Balance Dome” came from the fact that it’s attached to the Southern arches, the arches that are known as the Balances. -Named Tribe of Burhan al-Din: because the fact of the form of a platform and above the dome called as nsme of its builder Chief Justice Burhanuddin bin jama’a, the dome known as Tribe of Burhan al-Din.

                                  Builder Name:
    The Chief Justice Burhanuddin Ben Joma’a.

    Details of the shape:
    -The minaret building is made of marble from an entrance in above the contract rests on two small columns of marble, and ascends from it to a few degrees leads to a stone bench (seat) prepared to sit Khatib, and on top of that dome, adome nice small basil rests on beautiful marble columns, under the frieze board there is a small and beautiful mihrab in the west, while there is another mihrab on the east side, engraving inside the Western arch body carrying the Southern barrage.
    –Since it is in the form of a pulpit, a dome, it is known as the “Burhan al-Din Tribune”, after the Chief Justice Burhanuddin ibn Juma’a, which is located in 790-1388 AD, and they are the property of the mamluk.
    -The pulpit was renewed during the reign of the second Ottoman
    Sultan Abdul Majeed bin Mahmoud, in a year 1259 AH – 1843 AD. Also, it went under a restoration process in late 2000, by a group of Italian students, through the Department of Islamic Endowments.
    -in the place of this pulpit, there was another lovely wooden pulpit, put by Saladin. Then, it was rebuilt from the stone in the geometric style that the mamluk pulpits are famous for, with their engravings and beauty. Throughout the ages, it has become an architectural masterpiece that shines with beauty and magnificence.
    -This pulpit is called by some people “Summer Pulpit”, because it’s in an open yard, used in summer only when the weather is appropriate, to
    give lessons and lectures. It was used for speech and Dua’a in Islamic Eids, as well as for the prayers of ascites, which are held in the squares of Al-Aqsa Mosque, as there is no pulpit in the squares of the other mosque.

    An Overview of the Landmark:
    It was named Al-Meezan Dome because of its location right next to the Southern arches known as Al-Meezan Arches. The building resembles a pulpit; so it’s also called Burhan Ad-Din Pulpit, after the Chief Justice Burhan Ad-Din bin Jama’ah, who built a marble pulpit in the place of the wooden one that Saladin had put. This pulpit was used during Eid prayers and the prayers to invoke Allah for rain, in Al-Aqsa courts. It is surrounded by two niches.

  • Dome of Yusuf

    Landmark Location:
    It is in the South, and bounded on the east by Burhan Adin Pulpit, and on the west by the Grammar Dome. Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock: South of the Dome of the Rock’s nave.

    Landmark History:
     It is dated back to the Ottoman times, where the Ottoman governor gave the orders of that in 1681 AD/ 1902 AH, in honor of Salah Adin.

    Reason of the name:
    Named as a memorial to Yusuf bin Ayyub, known as Al-Nassir Salah Adin Al-Ayyubi.

    Builder Name:
     Al-Haj Ali built it, on the order of Yusuf Agha, and he dedicated its building to Yusuf Ayyub, known as Salah Adin.

    Details of the shape:
    -It is a semi-open building; since its southern side is closed by the southern wall of the Dome of the Rock’s nave. On this wall, there is an inscription, inside the dome, and above it is a mihrab.
    -The building resembles a small prayer hall, and above it is a dome built on pillars. The dome is topped by a crescent in the Ottoman style. -Its dimensions are 3.5×2.8 meters. Its base consists of two marble pillars.
    - It is widely, but wrongly, known that the dome was named after Prophet Yusuf (Joseph) peace be upon him. There is an Ayyubids inscription Al-Nassir Salah Adin Yusuf bin Ayyub has put it in the wall of Jerusalem city at this dome that shows that it was likely built to preserve this inscription, after rebuilding the wall by the Ottomans, hence; the intended “Yusuf” is the first name of Sultan Salah Adin.
    -It was targeted by the Zionist occupation’s machine and it is the case for all parts of Al-Aqsa Mosque. Whenever the occupation forces storm the courtyard of the sacred Rock in the heart of Al-Aqsa mosque, they are stationed at the Dome of Yusuf, to control the squares in front of Al-Qibli Mosque.
    - It seems that the Ottomans, when they re-built the shattered wall of Jerusalem, found a painting belonging to the Ayyubids referring to the construction of the wall and the trench. So Yusuf Agha ordered a memorial dome to be erected in honor of the liberation of Salah al-Din of Jerusalem. On the front exterior of the dome, there are two small inscriptions, one in Arabic and the other is in the Ottoman language.
    -It is noteworthy that Hajj Ali built this dome by order of Yusuf Agha and dedicated it to Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Salah al-Din).

    An Overview of the Landmark:
    - It was named as a memorial to Yusuf bin Ayyub, known as Al-Nassir Salah Adin Al-Ayyubi. It is in the south, and bounded on the east by Burhan Adin Pulpit, and on the west by the Grammar Dome. It’s south of the Rock’s nave, that is in the middle of Al-Aqsa Mosque. It is noteworthy that Hajj Ali built this dome by order of Yusuf Agha and dedicated it to Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Salah al-Din). Its building dates back to the Ottoman times, where the Ottoman governor gave the orders of that in 1681 AD/ 1902 AH, in honor of Salah Adin.
    - It is a semi-open building; since its southern side is closed by the southern wall of the Dome of the Rock’s nave. On this wall, there is an inscription, inside the dome, and above it is a mihrab. The building resembles a small prayer hall, and above it is a dome built on 4 pillars. The dome is topped by a crescent in the Ottoman style. Its dimensions are 3.5×2.8 meters. Its base consists of two marble pillars.

    - It is widely, but wrongly, known that the dome was named after Prophet Yusuf (Joseph) peace be upon him. There is an Ayyubids inscription Al-Nassir Salah Adin Yusuf bin Ayyub has put it in the wall of Jerusalem city at this dome that shows that it was likely built to preserve this inscription, after rebuilding the wall by the Ottomans, hence; the intended “Yusuf” is the first name of Sultan Salah Adin.

    - It was targeted by the Zionist occupation’s machine and it is the case for all parts of Al-Aqsa Mosque. Whenever the occupation forces storm the courtyard of the sacred Rock in the heart of Al-Aqsa mosque, they are stationed at the Dome of Yusuf, to control the squares in front of Al-Qibli Mosque.

    -It seems that the Ottomans, when they re-built the shattered wall of Jerusalem, found a painting belonging to the Ayyubids referring to the construction of the wall and the trench. So Yusuf Agha ordered a memorial dome to be erected in honor of the liberation of Salah al-Din of Jerusalem. On the front exterior of the dome, there are two small inscriptions, one in Arabic and the other is in the Ottoman language. It is noteworthy that Hajj Ali built this dome by order of Yusuf Agha and dedicated it to Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Salah al-Din).

  • The Grammar dome

    Landmark Location:
    West of Al-Aqsa Mosque, opposite of the chain door.

    Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
    Located in the southwestern tip of the Dome’s nave.

    Landmark History:
    604 AH
    - 1207 AD - Ayyubids period.

    Reason of the name:
    -Dome and grammar school because it created to be a school specializing in Linguistic Sciences, in addition to the seven readings of the Holy Quran.
     -Named Al-Muathamiya school, according to Al-Mu’azim Issa, who made it waqffor the students from the owners Hanafi doctrine.

    Builder Name:
    Established by the King Sharaf al-Din Abu al-Mansour Issa al-Ayyubi, by Prince Hossam Al-Din Abi Murad Qambaz.

    Details of the shape:
    -It is a two-story building:
    The basement is a 30-meter-long gallery that used as an oil store some times as The Chapel of Hanbala.
    The upper floor consists of three interconnecting rooms, where the western room contains the Grand Dome; the eastern room contains another lower dome first.
    -It has a main entrance in its northern facade and features its marble columns.
    -The dome consists of three interconnected rooms whose grand dome is above the room, while another dome is lower, above the eastern chamber and has a main entrance located in its northern façade.
    -The grammatical dome during the British occupation converted to a library, and today it is the seat of the Shari Court belong to Jordan.
    -Now called the Office of the Acting Qadi AL Quda.
    -The virtues of changing the use of the grammatical dome from an Arabic language school to a court, it’s became protected from the dangers of the occupation, because it oversees the Wall of Buraq from inside Al-Aqsa, also on Almagariba door and the chain door, so it is a hot spot when the Zionist attacks on the Al-Aqsa Mosque.
    -The Zionists stormed Al-Aqsa Mosque on the date of 30-6-2000 AD, so they stormed the grammar dome.
    -The dome and the Grammar school were built to be designated for linguistic sciences.

    An Overview of the Landmark:
    An-Nahwiyyah Dome and School was designated for linguistic sciences, in addition to the seven recitations of the Holy Quran. It was named Al-Mu'athamiya school, after Al-Mu’azim Issa, who made it waqf for the students in the Hanafi doctrine. It’s located west of Al-Aqsa Mosque, across the chain door, in the southwestern tip of the Dome’s nave. King Sharaf al-Din Abu al-Mansour Issa al-Ayyubi had it established. It was built by Prince Hossam Al-Din Abi Murad Qambaz, in 604 AH - 1207 AD.

    It is a two-story building. The basement is a 30-meter-long gallery that was used as an oil store sometimes as the Chapel of Hanbala. The upper floor consists of three interconnecting rooms, where the western room contains the Grand Dome; the eastern room contains another lower dome first. It has a main entrance in its northern facade and features its marble columns. The dome consists of three interconnected rooms whose grand dome is above the room, while another dome is lower, above the eastern chamber and has a main entrance located in its northern façade.

    During the British occupation, it was turned into a library. Today, it is the headquarter of the Shari'a Court affiliated to Jordan. It’s now called the Office of the Acting Chief Justice.
    one of the advantages of changing the use of An-Nahwiyyah dome from an Arabic language school to a court is that it became protected from the dangers of the occupation, because it oversees Al-Buraq Wall,  Al-Magharibah Gate, and As-Silsila Gate, so it is a hot spot when the Zionists attack the Al-Aqsa Mosque. The Zionists stormed Al-Aqsa Mosque and An-Nahwiyyah Dome on the 30th of June,2000.
    An-Nahwiyyah Dome and School were built to be designated for linguistic sciences, in addition to the Seven Recitations of the Holy Qur’an.

  • Dome of Moses

    Landmark Location:
    The Dome of Moses is located on the Mosa terrace, in the middle of western squares of Al-Aqsa Mosque Al-Mubarak, between the Chain Door west, and the Grammar Dome East.

    Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
     In the northeast of the Dome of the Rock.

    Landmark History:
    647 AH - 1249 AD
    .

    Reason of the name: Named after the prophet Moses, peace and blessings be upon him.

    Builder Name:
    The good king Najm al din Ayoub.

    Details of the shape:
    -It is a large square room; six meters long and Six meters wide. It has six windows, topped by a dome, and has a cantilever outside, and northern entrance, and the terrace surrounded by another mihrab of a high wall.
    -Previously called the dome of the tree, after a huge palm tree that was next to it, also called the wide dome.
    -Today, it is used as a house for memorizing the Holy Quran, where it was the first house of the Holy Quran in Palestine, and still groups graduate from it after learning Tajweed types.

    An Overview of the Landmark:
    It was named after Prophet Moses, peace and blessings be upon him. The Dome of Moses is located on Moses terrace, in the middle of the western squares of Al-Aqsa Mosque Al-Mubarak, between As-Silsila Gate west, and An-Nahwiyyah Dome east. It’s northeast of the Dome of the Rock. The good king Najm al din Ayoubbi had it built, in 647 AH - 1249 AD.
    It is a large square room; six meters long and six meters wide. It has six windows, topped by a dome, and has a cantilever outside, and northern entrance, and the terrace surrounded by another mihrab of a high wall.

    In the past, it was called the Dome of the Tree; after a huge palm tree that was next to it. Also, it was called the Wide Dome.
    Today, it is used as a house for memorizing the Holy Quran, where it was the first house of the Holy Quran in Palestine, and still groups graduate from it after learning Tajweed types.

  • Dome of the Prophet (Al Nabi)

    Landmark Location:
     In the middle of Al-Aqsa Mosque.

    Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
     In the northwest of the Dome of the Rock.

    Landmark History:
     Built in two phases, the first: 945 e - 1538 m Second: 1261 AH - 1845 AD.

                                       Reason of the name:
    Named after Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, and believed that it was the place where he prayed as an imam with the prophets and angels on the night of Isra.

    Builder Name:
     Built in two phases, the first: in the reign of Sultan Suleiman al Qanoni. Second: During the reign of Sultan Abdul Majid II.

    Details of the shape:
    -The dome built on eight marble columns, topped by eight pointed arches, open-sided, with red tiles on the dome floor surrounding it the mihrab, is likely to return to the Umayyad era.
    -Some texts indicate that the Mirage was on the right side of the Rock, and probably that’s why there are many domes on this side.
    -In the first phase of the construction, the existing mihrab was erected, and the second phase was the construction of the Dome over the
    mihrab.

    An Overview of the Landmark:
    It was named after Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, and believed that it was the place where he prayed as an imam with the prophets and angels on Al-Isra’a Night. It’s in the middle of Al-Aqsa Mosque, northwest of the Dome of the Rock. It was built in two phases. The first was during the reign of Sultan Suleiman al Qanouni, in 1538 (945 A.H.). The second was during the reign of Sultan Abdul Majid II, in 1845. (1261 A.H.).

    The dome was built on eight marble columns, topped by eight pointed arches, open-sided, with red tiles on the dome floor surrounding it the mihrab, is likely to return to the Umayyad era. Some texts indicate that the Mirage was on the right side of the Rock, and probably that’s why there are many domes on this side. In the first phase of the construction, the existing mihrab was erected, and the second phase was the construction of the Dome over the mihrab.

  • Dome of the Mi’rage (Dome of the Prophet)

    Landmark Location:
     Located above the nave of the Rock, northwest of the Dome of the Rock.

    Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
     Northwest Dome of the Rock.

    Landmark History:
     Built in 597 AH-1201 AD, i.e. in the Ayyubids era, at place for oldest dome erected to commemorate the Prophet’s Mi’raje. It was renovated in the Ottoman period.
    Reason of the name: Named to commemorate prophet Mohammed’s Mi’raje (ascending to heaven).

    Builder Name:
    Built by Prince Esfis-helar Ezzeddine Metwally, the Sheriff of Al-Quds.

    Details of the shape:
    -The dome is a small octagonal building, with closed walls by a white marble panels, has one niche on the south side, and the door to the north, It is built on 30 columns, topped by a dome covered with lead palate, characterized by presence of small dome above it, with a crown on top of her head.
    -When mentioning the construction of Abdul Malik: three domes adjacent, Dome of the Rock, dome of Me’raj and dome of chain. Indicating that these three domes date back to the Umayyad period.
    -As such narrated by Al-Mushraf ibn al-Marji (482 Hijri / 1099 AD) “there is no two differ the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) embarrassed by this dome, which is said to be the dome of al-Me’raj”.
    -It seems that the dome demolished during the Crusader occupation of the mosque, then rebuilt again in the Ayyubid era, As the Ayyubid inscription above its door indicates: "This is a dome of Prophet Muhammad mentioned by the people of history in their books, took to show them after its absence and its reconstruction after its demise … Isfashelar Abi Amr Othman bin Ali bin Abdullah Zanjibili Metwally of
    Jerusalem, in the months of the year seven hundred and ninety five hundred and fifty-five.
    Note: In the Book of Subh al-Ashi in the Al-Ansha industry, the word
    Isfehlar means army commander, Which indicates the inscription:

    Ayyubid era:
    -The old dome established but destroyed, then re-built by the governor of Jerusalem Ayyubids year (597 Hijri / 1200 AD) during the
    reign of Sultan Abu Bakr bin Ayoub brother Salahaddine, the presence of crowns and other remnants of crusade is a secondary use before by the Ayyubids, but not means that the Crusaders are the builders of the dome, the text of inscription refuted the claims that the dome was the Crusader building, and that used as a site for baptism, and theat Crusader travelers who visited the mosque during the Crusader occupation of the Crusades did not mention the presence of the Western Dome of the Rock used for baptism, but they mentioned a pond for washing sinners, as well the crusader traveler Theodrich at his journey in 555 hijri.
    -This dome called in the Ayyubids era Dome of the Prophet, It seems that the number of names of the dome is derived from the name Dome of the ProphetMe’rage" there are called by "Dome of the Prophet" and others, "Dome of the Me’rage."

    Mamluk era:
    -The dome took its current name as Al-Omari points out in his visit in (746 Hijri / AD 1345), An octagonal dome, called the dome of the pyramid, was built on it open to North.

    Ottoman era:
    -At (1195 AH / 1781 AD) The verse of the Isra’a was placed above its niche in support of the name of the dome Al-Me’raj dome, wrote over
    her beautiful niche, covered with colored Ottoman veneer.
    -Nice: the dome of the Umayyad caliphs were on columns without walls as mentioned Al-Maqdisi, in while the Ayyubids dome was sealed with marble, making her door always closed, so that it was Aoulia Al Halabi says: do not know what is inside and does not have windows, The Sheikh Abdul Ghani Nabulsi Entered, after calling the demolition of the dome and opened the locks and described the dome.

    An Overview of the Landmark:
    It was named to commemorate Prophet Mohammed’s Mi’raj (ascending to heaven). It’s located above the nave of the Rock, northwest of the Dome of the Rock. It was built by Prince Esfis-helar Ezzeddine Metwally, the Sheriff of Al-Quds, in 597 AH-1201 AD, i.e. in the Ayyubids era, at place for oldest dome erected to commemorate the Prophet’s Mi’raje. It was renovated in the Ottoman period.

    The dome is a small octagonal building, with closed walls by a white marble panels, has one niche on the south side, and the door to the north, It is built on 30 columns, topped by a dome covered with lead palate, characterized by presence of small dome above it, with a crown on top of her head. When mentioning the construction of Abdul Malik: three domes adjacent, Dome of the Rock, AlmI’raj Dome, and As-Silsila Dome. Indicating that these three domes date back to the Umayyad period.

    As such narrated by Al-Mushraf ibn al-Marji (482 Hijri / 1099 AD) “there is no two differ the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) embarrassed by this dome, which is said to be the dome of al-Me’raj”.

    It seems that the dome demolished during the Crusader occupation of the mosque, then rebuilt again in the Ayyubid era, As the Ayyubid inscription above its door indicates: "This is a dome of Prophet Muhammad mentioned by the people of history in their books, took to show them after its absence and its reconstruction after its demise ... Isfashelar Abi Amr Othman bin Ali bin Abdullah Zanjibili Metwally of Jerusalem, in the months of the year seven hundred and ninety five hundred and fifty-five.

    Note: In the Book of Subh al-A'shi in the Al-Ansha industry, the word Isfehlar means army commander, Which indicates the inscription.

    Ayyubid era:
    The old dome established but destroyed, then re-built by the governor of Jerusalem Ayyubids year (597 Hijri / 1200 AD) during the reign of Sultan Abu Bakr bin Ayoub brother Salahaddine, the presence of crowns and other remnants of crusade is a secondary use before by the Ayyubids, but not means that the Crusaders are the builders of the dome, the text of inscription refuted the claims that the dome was the Crusader building, and that used as a site for baptism, and theat Crusader travelers who visited the mosque during the Crusader occupation of the Crusades did not mention the presence of the Western Dome of the Rock  used for baptism, but they mentioned a pond for washing sinners, as well the crusader traveler Theodrich at his journey in 555 hijri. 

    In the Ayyubids era, this dome was called Dome of the Prophet. It seems that the number of names of the dome is derived from the name "Dome of the Prophet's Me’rage" there are called by "Dome of the Prophet" and others, "Dome of the Mi’raj."

    Mamluk era:
    The dome took its current name as Al-Omari points out in his visit in (746 Hijri / AD 1345), An octagonal dome, called the dome of the pyramid, was built on it open to North.

    Ottoman era:
    At (1195 AH / 1781 AD) The verse of the Isra’a was placed above its niche in support of the name of the dome Al-Me’raj dome, wrote over her beautiful niche, covered with colored Ottoman veneer.

     Lateefah: the dome of the Umayyad caliphs was on columns without walls as mentioned Al-Maqdisi, in while the Ayyubids dome was sealed with marble, making her door always closed, so that it was Aoulia Al Halabi says: do not know what is inside and does not have windows, The Sheikh Abdul Ghani Nabulsi entered, after calling the demolition of the dome and opened the locks and described the dome.

  • The Dome of Sheikh Al-Khalili (Zawiya Muhammadiyah)

    Landmark Location:
    Located in the Rock’s nave, northwest of the Dome of the Rock located in the middle of Al-Aqsa Mosque.

    Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
    Northwest of the Dome of the Rock.

    Landmark History:
    Established in the Ottoman era in (1112 AH / 1700 AD).

    Reason of the name:
    Other names: (The dome of the Bekh Bekh) (The chapel of Al Kheder) (Mosque of the Prophet).
     -Named after the Sufi Sheikh Mohammed Al-Khalili, who used to lead the prayers as an Imam, and worship Allah in it.

    Builder Name:
     Governor of Ottoman Jerusalem Mohammed Beck.

    Details of the shape:
    -A square building on four Staff, topped by a shallow dome with Ottoman style, its four facades have eight rectangular windows in each two windows interface.
    -In the eastern facade of the building a small door topped with inscription bearing the name and date of the building.
    -Inside the dome is a mihrab decorated with mosaics from a royal calcareous stone with a shallow stone garden, and beneath the building of –The dome of the Khalili there is a building below, called a cave of spirits, reached through a stone staircase cut from the rock, this light filled ventilated cavern is not used.
    -Today is the Office of the Committee for the reconstruction of Al Aqsa Mosque.
    -And also the corner of Muhammadiyah, the inscription is a combination of several poetic verses above an entrance Dome One of the verses indicates the date of the dome construction according to the Sentences:  Muhammad has his date" "We said, enter it safely
    The Ottoman era known for its history using words and poetry, which is known Calculate the sentences (Abjad Hughes) where the alphabet is equal to aleph 1, and Ba 2 and Kaf 20, then The sum of the sentence numbers & quotthen the sum of the sentence numbers is "date, and we said, enter it safely" (equals 1112 Hijri / 1700 AD).
    -The dome was created by the Ottoman governor of Jerusalem, Muhammad Bek, and used as a school then studied in which the Shaafa judge in Jerusalem, Sheikh Muhammad al-Khalili, then made as waqf for his property spending in 1139 AH / 1726 AD, so its named as his name.
    -It seems that Muhammad Beck ordered a well to be dug in the rock and then built his dome above it. we can see the effects of the well, then after abandoning the well for too long, it dried, and a mihrab replaced it inside the room and served as a basement for the Sufis.
    -With the abandonment of Al Kheder corner and using it as a store, itwas renamed theBekh Bekh”.
    -The dome is used today as the office of the Committee of Al-Aqsa Mosque Renovation.

    An Overview of the Landmark:
    Ash-Sheikh Al-Khalili Dome (Al-Mohammediyyah Dome).
    Other names for it are the dome of the Bekh Bekh, the chapel of Al Khader, Mosque of the Prophet. It was named after the Sufi Sheikh Mohammed Al-Khalili, who used to lead the prayers as an Imam, and worship Allah. It’s located in the Rock’s nave, northwest of the Dome of the Rock, in the middle of Al-Aqsa Mosque. It was built by the Ottoman governor of Jerusalem Mohammed Beck. It was established in the Ottoman era in (1112 AH / 1700 AD). It’s a square building on four Staff, topped by a shallow dome with Ottoman style, its four facades have eight rectangular windows in each two windows interface. In the eastern facade of the building a small door topped with inscription bearing the name and date of the building. Inside the dome is a mihrab decorated with mosaics from a royal calcareous stone with a shallow stone garden, and beneath the building of the dome of the Khalili there is a building below, called a cave of spirits, reached through a stone staircase cut from the rock, this light-filled ventilated cavern is not used. Today is the Office of the Committee for the reconstruction of Al Aqsa Mosque. Also, the corner of Muhammadiyah, the inscription is a combination of several poetic verses above an entrance Dome One of the verses indicates the date of the dome's construction according to the Sentences:
    Muhammad has his date" "We said, enter it safely."

    The Ottoman era was known for its history using words and poetry.
    Those wo know how to do some calculations will find that the sentences (Abjad Hughes) where the alphabet is equal to aleph equals  1, and Ba 2 and Kaf 20. The sum of the points of the sentence & quote then the sum of the sentence numbers is "date, and we said, enter it safely" (equals 1112 Hijri / 1700 AD).

    Note: It seems that Muhammad Beck ordered a well to be dug in the rock and then built his dome above it. we can see the effects of the well, then after abandoning the well for too long, it dried, and a mihrab replaced it inside the room and served as a basement for the Sufis. With the abandonment of Al Khader Corner and using it as a store, it was renamed as the "Bekh Bekh”.The dome is used today as the office of the Committee of Al-Aqsa Mosque Renovation.

  • Dome of the Spirits

    Landmark Location:
     In the center of Al-Aqsa Mosque.

    Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
    In front of the Dome of the Rock.

    Landmark History: The tenth century AH - AD 16th century.

    Reason of the name:
    -There are different assumptions on the reason of its name, and some people said that its name came from the fact that it’s close to the Spirits Cave.
     -Others said that it was named according to the hadiths that mentioned the virtue of the Rock in Jerusalem; that it is the land of the oppressed and the messenger that the souls of the worshipers are gathered at Doomsday.

    Builder Name:
     In the Ottoman era.

    Details of the shape:
    -Open-sided, consisting of eight marble columns on which to base eight pointed contracts, above which a large dome, and at the bases of the columns one stone barrier, and ends in the shape of a niche in the direction of Qibla.
    -Some Orientalists and Jews claim that the Rock is the site of the alleged Holy Solomon’s Temple.

    An Overview of the Landmark:
    There are different assumptions on the reason of its name, and some people said that its name came from the fact that it’s close to the Spirits Cave. Others said that it was named according to the hadiths that mentioned the virtue of the Rock in Jerusalem; that it is the land of the oppressed and the messenger that the souls of the worshipers are gathered at Doomsday. It’s right in the middle of Al-Aqsa Mosque, in front of the Dome of the Rock. It was built in the Ottoman era, specifically in the16th century, that is the 10th Hijri century.

    It’s open-sided, consisting of eight marble columns on which to base eight pointed contracts, above which a large dome, and at the bases of the columns one stone barrier, and ends in the shape of a niche in the direction of Qibla. Some Orientalists and Jews claim that the Rock is the site of the alleged Holy Solomon’s Temple.

  • Al Kheder Dome

    Landmark Location:
    In the center of Al-Aqsa Mosque.

    Landmark Location relative to Dome of the rock:
     In the northeast of the Dome of the Rock.

    Landmark History:
    Tenth Hijri century - 16th century.

    Reason of the name:
     Named after the place where al Kheder, who is a virtuous worshipper and believer, prayed.

    Builder Name:
     At Ottoman era.

    Details of the shape:
    -Small size, mounted on six marble columns, six stone blocks above, with a red mihrab in the direction of the Qibla.
    -There is some Old Sayings that the date of the original construction of the dome dates back to the Mukluk period.
    -The dome was named in relation to the place where he prayed and where the Al Kheder fit Peace.
    -In the north-east of the Dome of the Rock.
    -Built in Ottoman era in the tenth century Hijri – 16th century.
    -A small dome on six marble pillars, topped by six pointed stone blocks, and inside a red machete shaped like a niche towards the Qibla.
    -There are some saying the original construction of the dome dates back to the Mamluk period. Below the dome is a vault known as Maqam
    Al Kheder, but there is no evidence of the authenticity of the matter.

    An Overview of the Landmark:
    It’s named after the place where al Khader, who is a virtuous worshipper and believer, prayed. It’s right in the middle of Al-Aqsa Mosque, northeast of the Dome of the Rock. The dome was built in the Ottoman era, specifically in the16th century, that is the 10th Hijri century.
    It’s a small dome on six marble pillars, topped by six pointed stone blocks, and inside a red machete shaped like a niche towards the Qibla. There are some saying the original construction of the dome dates back to the Mamluk period. Below the dome is a vault known as Maqam.

  • Dome of the Rock

    Landmark Location:
    The heart of the Holy Mosque.

    Landmark History:
    72 AH / 691 AD in the Umayyad period under the reign of kalipha Abdul Malik bin Marwan.

    Reason of the name:
    For it is presence above the rock.

    Builder Name:
     Built by Raja bin Haywa al-Bisani and helped him Yazid ibn Salam, one of the people of Jerusalem.

    Details of the shape:
    -The Dome of the Rock is located in the heart of Al-Aqsa Mosque (in the middle with a slight deviation towards North) so that it is based on a plate that rises about 4 meters from the level of the courtyard of the mosque, this plate is ascended by 8 drawers, each of which is topped by a barrage or -called arches.

    -The Muslim Engineer in the design and construction of the dome built on three engineering departments, which translated with three architectural elements that resulted in the intersection of two equal squares: the dome Which covers the rock and surrounds it, and the internal and external valuations surrounding the dome resulted in between them is an inner hall in the form of octagonal ribs with a medallion in the center of the rock, 

    -Later a unique Islamic landmark, the rock rises from the floor of the building about a meter and half, and the rock rises in the center of the building round dome diameter of about 20 meters.

    -The Dome of the Rock consists of:
    -Circle surrounding the dome: Based on 4 pillars covered with streaking marble, and on 12 columns surrounding the Rock, the dome consists of two internal and external domes erected on a wooden frame above the neck of the dome.
    -Indoor octagonal open: contains 8 pillars of stone there are two marble columns between each pillar is another 6 meters wide, topped by semicircular contracts decorated with gold-plated mosaics, connected to each other by decorative wooden bridges.
    -External octagonal closed: consists of 8 stone facades, opened in 4 of them a door and was opened 4 windows in each front  have a door, 5 windows in the front without a door to add 2  windows in the lower half of the facade (added late), width of about 4, covered with white marbled tiles inside. 

    -The walls of the dome covered with marble plates, Which consists of four symmetrical parts and be a beautiful form called the name (Al Shaqiqa), one of types of Islamic art, it is a very beautiful geometric form that enriches the mosques from the use of decorations and shapes animal and human rights that Islam has denied.

    -The outer part of the dome paved with two types of tiles, the lower part of which tiled with white marble tiles, and the upper section paved with al-Qashani, the roof of two yards also covered from the external decoration and even the dome with wooden Jamlonat, wrapped from inside with panels of wood painted, decorated with figures beautiful, and on the outside were laminated with lead panels.

    Dimensions and measurements of Dome and Dome of the Rock:
    -Internal dome diameter: 20.44 m – Height: 9.8 m.
    -Full building diameter: 52 m – Height: 35 m.
    Lengths of octagonal ribs Dome of the Rock:
    -Rib length: 20.60 m – Rib height: 9.5 m
    Dimensions of the Supervised Rock: (17.70 * 13.50).

    Cave: (Cave of the Al Arwah)
    -It is located at the bottom of the supervised rock, estimated to be 3 meters high, a natural cave that can accommodate for about 40 person.
    -The opening at the top of the cave has spread many rumors and many phrases, the false examples of it, and the fact that it was caused by the Crusader occupation after they turned the mosque into a church and they turned the cave area into an altar and created the slot to shed the blood of the slaughtered sacrifices. As there are two mihrabs and a mastba .

    The mihrab date back to the Ayyubids period and called the Mihrab of David, and the other is called Mihrab  Sulaiman, return to the early Islamic period, and the mosque is located in the corner north, the Khidir Mistaba with dimension of (2 * 1.5).

    The Dome’s Nave:
    -Is the Wide area surrounding the Dome of the Rock, called the “Al Dukan” in the Al-Abbasi period, and “Al-Dakka” in the Fatimid era.
    -The nave is surrounded by a handrail of green dotted marble, removed in the Ayyubids period, this is because the great King Issa ordered the expansion of the bowel from the west side 18 meters, so as to provide space for the construction of grammar school, and the work of tanks to collect water from the saucer to the new cutters under the saucer, and the current shape of the dish fixed from the Mamluk period.

    Additional Information about the Landmark:
    Designed on precise and consistent geometric foundations that demonstrate the creativity of the mind Islamic engineering, Egypt’s abscess has been required for seven years to build this building, as most historians stated that the construction began in 66 AH / 685 AD and ended in 72 AH / 705 AD, the other part of the historians say that it began construction in 72 AH because of the occupation of the Calipha  his war with Abdullah bin Zubair.

    Why lavish spending on the Dome of the Rock?
    Spending on building the Dome of the Rock with this extravagance; a demonstration of the greatness of Islamic civilization, before the great civilizations then the Persians and the Romans, especially after the entry of those inhabitants the country in Islam has been accustomed to seeing the brilliance of the two civilizations, It was also equivalent
    Please increase by 100 thousand dinars after they finished building the dome.

     What is the purpose of building the Dome of the Rock?
    The building of the Dome of the Rock dates back to three theories:
    1 - In commemoration of the incident of Isra and Maraj.
    2 -Show the greatness of Islam, and make it an Islamic city.
    3- Order to convert the pilgrimage to the Al Aqsa (as claimed by the Yacoubi) – a Shiai an extremist was trying to distort the image of the Umayyads to win the satisfaction of the Abbasids.

    -The interior dome decorated with gilded frescoes and magnificent frescoes, and an opening there are 16 windows for lighting and ventilation.
    -The outer dome coated with copper plates with gold plating.

     Why the Dome of the Rock built octagonal ribs?
    Several theories suggested for building the dome as such:
    1- Religious reasons
    Because of the famous saying that the rock is the lower throne of God make, the building eight ribs resembled the throne of God in heaven.
    2 – Architectural reasons
    So as to exploit the space as much as possible and to show the original Islamic architecture.

    Dome of the Rock in the Abbasid period: {750-970m.}
    The Abbasids cared for the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque and Jerusalem as much as they could, they had many restoration works in Al-Aqsa Mosque, as illustrated by a number of inscriptions and the Abbasid Calipha  al-Ma’mun established a fils called Jerusalem this event is the first of its kind in the history of Jerusalem and was documented in 217 AH.

     Dome of the Rock in the Fatimid period: {970-1099.}
    The dome was severely damaged by an earthquake that hit Al-Aqsa Mosque, Alhakem be amrellah khalifa started the restoration work and completed by his son Al-Zaher le’ezaz denellah, where the dome rebuilt and shot dead instead of copper doctrine (Umayyad origin) and included the restoration of the dome and decorations, windows in the dome neck And many things in the building.

     Dome of the Rock in the Crusader era: {1099-1187m.}
    During the crusader occupation, the Dome of the Rock converted into a church and placed above the rock an altar, made the cave a place for the shedding of the blood of offerings, and placed a crucifix over the rock of gold.

    After the crusader occupation of 15 years, the kings of the Franja (Westerners) rocked the marble with fear as the priests were trading them and cutting pieces of the rock and selling it for pilgrims and visitors with gold, as for the iron fence, which removed in 1965 from about the rock dates, back to the Umayyad period and not to the crusaders.

     Dome of the Rock in the Ayyubids period: {1187-1250 m.}
    -After Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi opened al-Aqsa Mosque, he cleaned and removed all the Crusader monuments of the mosque, returned the
    Dome of the Rock to what it was with rose some of the restoration work, and put 21 verses of Taha. In 1198 he did king Othman bin Salah al
    Din put a wooden barrier around the rock to protect it.
    -The Ayyubids continued to take care of the Dome of the Rock after Saladin, and their most cleaned Rock with their hands and wash it with rose water constantly.

    The Dome of the Rock in the Mamluk Period: {1250-1517.}
    -The sultans of this period did not hesitate to take care of the Dome of the Rock.
    -In 1270 AD,Sultan Zahir Baybars renewed the mosaic decorations in the city external appreciation.
    -In 1318, Sultan al-Nasir Muhammad Nasir ibn Qalawun renovated and decorated the dome from inside and from outside, and the nave of the Dome of the Rock.

    Dome of the Rock in the Ottoman era: {1517-1917.}
    -The Ottomans took care of Al-Aqsa Mosque and its buildings for 400 years, and did not give up in that.
    -During the reign of Sultan Suleiman, the Al Qanoni in the period between 1537-1552 AD he changed the Umayyad mosaics covered with panels, and glass windows installed, which gave them a luster own.

    -In 1720: the third Sultan Ahmad renewed the Kashani and glass windows, Consumed about two thirds of the taxes of Jaffa and Tripoli.
    -In 1817 AD: the second Sultan Mahmoud changed the outer marble of the dome and performed with the renovation of locally made crustaceans.
    -In 1853: a huge project initiated to renovate the internal wooden roof and changing worn-out clothes.
    -In 1875 AD: This done during the reign of Sultan Abdul Aziz, and completed the restoration the roof and changing the worn-out tiles, and renewed the verse “Yasein” Around the outer walls.
    -Restoration of 1876: During the reign of second Sultan Abdul Hamid, and began this reconstruction brushes luxury carpets. 

    Dome of the Rock and the Supreme Islamic Council: {1922-1948.}
    After the occurrence of Al-Aqsa Mosque under the British occupation, the council assumed responsibility, it protected the Dome of the Rock and made plans for the reconstruction of the dome and the changing of the tiles but the Palestinian revolutions and wars prevented the completion of these reconstructions and the Council only make only some adjustments.

    Dome of the Rock and the Covenant of Jordan: {1967-to now.}
    -Al-Aqsa Mosque Reconstruction Committee took over the restoration work at this stage. The reconstruction at this stage is so necessary that the prayer hall of the Dome of the Rock in a deplorable state, as it was affected in the 1948 War. The Zionists threw some bombs on Al-Aqsa Mosque, one of which hit the Dome of the Rock and caused damage.

    -Al-Aqsa Mosque Reconstruction Committee replaced the lead plates coated the dome replaced with a yellow colored metal that later removed, finally they rebuilt the dome from a painted copper sheet with gold.

    What types of decorations used in the Dome of the Rock?
    1- The mosaic decoration:
    -They are small squares of stained glass, used in a dome building Rock, and the embodiment of the Islamic faith through the designs of mosaics.
    -Emphasis were put on mosaics on forms that do not contradict Islam plant shapes or beautiful geometric drawings, some of which had great meaning, when he focused the Muslim artist to draw the Taj Byzantine from within the decorations in the dome, here he wanted to recalling the victory of the islamic state over the great Byzantine state, it focuses and shows the greatness of Islam.

    2-Wood decoration:
    These motifs found between the pillars and in the
    wooden barrier around the rock that he ordered Aziz Othman bin Salah al-Din to build. “Art of wood decoration” Known as art Arabesque.
    3-Glass decoration:
    These motifs designed on different plants, floral forms, and geometric shapes and come back the Umayyad period, the decorations in the Dome of the Rock, are prototypes for decoration on glass.

    4- Marble decoration:
    Used in the Dome of the Rock for its durability and hardness, and was used extensively most of the building, we see it in the columns and their crowns and stone stucco, as it is, most of the marble in the dome is the original Umawied .

    5-Alqashnia decoration:
    It is a colorful pottery painted with a layer of glass, and recently called the tiles of the Chinese tiles. Used in the building of the Dome of the Rock, and it shows as many verses as possible; Quranic verses such as (Surah Yassin and part of the Surat Al Isra), used for the first time in Dome of the Rock, in the reign of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Al Qanoni, color the blue dominated the rest of the colors and the building gained contact with the sky’s glow, believe that the colored tiles used by Sultan Suleiman in the construction of the dome were manufactured in the city Jerusalem, where it found some ovens for cooking Kashani in Al-Aqsa Mosque near a dome the rock.

    An Overview of the Landmark:
    -The Dome of the Rock is one of the most important Islamic architectural monuments in the world, and great religious sanctity in the hearts of Muslims and many people, is the oldest and most beautiful model in Islamic architecture, drew the attention and interest of researchers and all people to what it excelled of the harmony between its elements and architectural structures, considered a verse in the art of engineering architectural, and is the most beautiful and admired wonders of the world.

    -Muslims have shown particular interest in them over the long Islamic history, especially after the natural disasters that had a significant impact on Al-Aqsa Mosque from earthquakes, storms, rain, etc., as no successor or Muslim Sultan was late restoration, preservation and defense.

    -The dome built during the reign of the Umayyad Calipha  Abdal-Malik ibn Marwan, and he supervised its construction Raja ibn Haywa and Yazid ibn Salam, built in the heart of Al-Aqsa Mosque particular. It built with very high precision and its dimensions are:

    -Dimensions and measurements of Dome and Dome of the Rock
    – Internal dome diameter: 20.44 m – Height: 9.8 m
    – Qatar Full building: 52 m – Height: 35 m
    -Octagonal rib lengths rock dome
    – Rib length: 20.60 m – Rib height: 9.5 m
    – Dimensions of the rock supervisor (17.70 * 13.50)

    -The walls of the Dome of the Rock were paved with marble tablets, which consists of four parts symmetrical and form a beautiful called the name (Al Shaqiqa), one of Islamic art types used in more than one place and more than one type.

    -The Dome of the Rock contains 14 mihrabs, and the main ones are located in the direction of the Qibla, also it have 52 windows  and a large number of black marble tiles is estimated at 99 tiles, as it is it contains 24 arch decorated with mosaics connected the columns with each other.

    -The Dome of the Rock affected by all historical periods since its construction and every passing period,  caused many things of restoration, repair, modification and vandalism as well, in a period the Crusader and Israeli occupation is the worst period, in the Islamic period,  the most prosperous period, which transformed it and made it take its current form, and now represents the covered space surrounding the sacred rock is a prayer hall dedicated to women prayers Friday,( Eid, Friday pray and Taraweeh).

    -The Zionists were particularly interested in the rock, they seek to establish their temple alleged in the place of the rock, made multiple attacks on them in various ways, from bombing their aircraft during the aggression of 1948, and the desecration of the rock supervised by raising their flag above it for some time and a lot of attacks that negatively affect the Dome of the Rock, as it is during the 1980 AD, several attempts were made to blow it up with explosives highly destructive to Jewish extremists, a Jewish soldier named Harry Goldman, he broke into it in 1982 and fired at the worshipers indiscriminately causing in the martyrdom of two and injuring four worshipers.

    -In addition, excavations and Zionist tunnels continue around and below the Aqsa Mosque, some of them into what is under the Dome of the Rock, but thought to have established Jewish churches, this serious assaults affected the Dome of the Rock with all the great marble surrounding the dome inside, its mosaic decorations from inside and outside suffer from cracking and corrosion and falling,  this situation threatened by an increase due to the blockade imposed by the authorities, the Zionist occupation of the Aqsa Mosque and prevented Muslims from doing any restoration work for any of its parts, including the Dome of the Rock.

1
حدث في مثل هذا اليوم

لا يوجد أحداث في مثل هذا اليوم